Saturday, February 11, 2012

Choose Human rights (HR) as a career

Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, irrespective of nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimi-nation. These rights are interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.



Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the form of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.

Human Rights legislation commonly contains:

Security rights that protect people against crimes such as murder, massacre, torture and rape
Liberty rights that protect freedoms in area such as belief and religion, association, assemblies and movement
Political rights that protect the liberty to participate in politics by expressing themselves, protesting, voting and serving in public office
Due process rights that protect against abuse of the legal system such as imprisonment without trial, secret trials and excessive punishment
Equality rights that guarantee equal citizenship, equality before law and non discrimination
Welfare rights (also known as economic and social rights) that require the provision of education and protection against severe poverty and starvation
Group rights that provide protection for group against ethnic genocide and for the ownership by countries of their national territories and resources
Violation of Human Rights

According to the Universal Declaration of Human rights, fundamental rights are violated when:

A Certain, Creed, or a group is denied recognition as a “person” (Article 2)
Men and Women are not treated as equal (Article 2)
Different Racial or Religious groups are not treated equally (Article 2)
Life, liberty or security of person are threatened (Article 3)
A person is sold as or used as a slave (Article 4)
Cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment is used on a person (such as torture or execution) (Article 5)
Punishments are dealt arbitrarily or unilaterally, without a proper and fair trial (Article 11)
Arbitrary interference into personal, or private lives by agents of the state (Article 12)
Citizens are forbidden to leave their country (Article 13)
Freedom of Speech or religion are denied (Article 18 & 19)
The right to join a trade union is denied (Article 23)
Education is denied (Article 26)
Universal and Inalienable

The principle of universality of human rights is the cornerstone of international human rights law. This principle, as first emphasized in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights in 1948, has been reiterated in numerous international human rights conventions, declarations, and resolutions. The 1993 Vienna World Conference on Human Rights, for example, noted that it is the duty of States to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems.

All States have ratified at least one, and 80% of States have ratified four or more, of the core human rights treaties, reflecting consent of States which creates legal obligations for them and gives concrete expression to universality. Some fundamental human rights norms enjoy universal protection by customary international law across all boundaries and civilizations.

Human rights are inalienable. They should not be taken away, except in specific situations and according to due process. For example, the right to liberty may be restricted if a person is found guilty of a crime by a court of law.

Interdependent and Indivisible

All human rights are indivisible, whether they are civil and political rights, such as the right to life, equality before the law and freedom of expression; economic, social and cultural rights, such as the rights to work, social security and education, or collective rights, such as the rights to development and self-determination, are indivisible, interrelated and interdependent. The improvement of one right facilitates advancement of the others. Likewise, the deprivation of one right adversely affects the others.

Equal and Non-discriminatory

Non-discrimination is a cross-cutting principle in international human rights law. The principle is present in all the major human rights treaties and provides the central theme of some of international human rights conventions such as the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

The principle applies to everyone in relation to all human rights and freedoms and it prohibits discrimination on the basis of a list of categories such as sex, race, colour and so on. The principle of non-discrimination is complemented by the principle of equality, as stated in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.”

Both Rights and Obligations

Human rights entail both rights and obligations. States assume obligations and duties under international law to respect, to protect and to fulfill human rights. The obligation to respect means that States must refrain from interfering with or curtailing the enjoyment of human rights. The obligation to protect requires States to protect individuals and groups against human rights abuses. The obligation to fulfill means that States must take positive action to facilitate the enjoyment of basic human rights. At the individual level, while we are entitled to our human rights, we should also respect the human rights of others.

Tuesday, February 7, 2012

Jobs and Career in leather goods and accessories design

If designing is your passion and fashion your forte, then a degree in Leather Goods and Accessories Design can be your big ticket to the glamour world. Accessory design is one of the latest career trends that seem to have caught the fancy of many. We don’t blame them! After all this is one profession where the designers get to design all cool stuff ranging from gloves, to scarves to belts and more. Not only this, a career in accessory design can open your doors to the runways too. Leather technology in recent times is fast emerging as a lucrative career option.
Until a few years ago, those who happened to be in the industry were there by way of experience rather than through any formal training. But now, in India, scores of institutes are offering certificate as well as diploma courses in designing as well as production, adding a much needed professionalism to this industry. Accessories are a growing business with substantial employment opportunities.
The Indian leather industry is growing by leaps and bounds. One must be wondering why India is exporting so much of leather to western countries. Apparently because leatherwear still enjoys a great demand abroad and nowadays even the domestic market is developing and consuming the offerings of this industry. To many, it would also be a surprise to know that the Indian Leather industry is the fourth largest export earner in the country. One can only imagine what shape this industry takes on further maturing.

Nature of Work:

The demand of the leather goods is on the rise and is expected to grow further. With more and more multinationals coming to India, this industry is poised to become a hi-tech industry. Leatherwear constitutes a variety of products ranging from footwear and accessories like belts, bags, purses and caps to toys, upholstery, baggage, musical instruments, garment tags, gift items etc.

At present, most of the people in this industry are not trained but now with this industry advancing and developing both technologically and professionally, it calls for qualified professionals to cater to the needs and requirements of the people. Thinking of this industry as a career option, one can either take up designing or may get into the technical side that is production, depending upon the interest and aptitude. Both the options are rewarding. As far as designing is concerned, world over, designers have started using leather as an important part of their designer wear and accessories, which has made leather amongst the top apparel material. The other option being production is also not a bad proposition. On attaining requisite qualifications in the field of production, one can start working with leather manufacturing companies and tanneries.

Eligibility

To pursue a career in Leather Goods and Accessories Design, passion, super creativity and drive are needed. However, earning a specialized degree in Leather Goods and Accessory Design from leading fashion and art schools can position you for sleek jobs in fashion houses and glam stores. Several fashion and fine arts schools offer specialized courses as well as graduate programs in Leather Goods and accessory design. In order to enroll in associate or undergraduate programs, students must possess 10+2 and must pass standardized entrance tests. Most graduate and advanced programs entertain previous on-hand experience in designing and may request portfolio of creative work together with college transcripts during admission.

Personal Skills

If you are creative and, stylish and have enough verve to transform your ideas into attractive accessories, then a career in accessory designing may be your stuff. Designing is a serious business and it takes acute aesthetic refinement and creative knack to do justice to it. Aspiring designers wanting to join the fashion taskforce should have an up-to-date idea on new trends and have a wide grasp of economic parameters and technical skills. In-depth of understanding of technology, marketing, production and sales is always an added advantage. Apart from that, students should have an impeccable flair for style, perfect artistic skills, great sense of color and textures and more. Passion, patience, perseverance, dedication and, commitment are just other complementary skills required for this profession.

Leather industry as such, does not ask for very special attributes but just like any other industry, one needs to be a high achiever, committed, dedicated and hard worker for higher goals. If one happens to be in the production line. The work can be quite tiring, especially while working in the tanneries and production houses, often involving a lot of hard work and strain. Designing successfully, on the other hand is more of a combination of mental ability and artistic finesse. Creativity with uniqueness can do wonders for designers. So being creative and original is of utmost importance. They should combine well their mental ability to constantly think and come up with new ideas, with dexterity to give shape to their ideas.

Designers are required to display both a high level of creative ability and technical understanding of production methods
Fashion awareness, colour and shape sense are important
Problem solving skills, time management and a lot of self discipline go in to the making of a fashion design.
The ability to communicate ideas both visually and verbally
Openness to new ideas and influences
Interest in how cloths are made, fascination with change and development;
Team work skills and physical stamina are essential as hours of work are fairly long and demanding and you have to work in a team against tight deadlines.


Courses

Professional qualification has a great role for working efficiently in an organization. Apart from a professional degree/diploma, it’s also very important to up-date with the latest international standards and competition. In India there are various institutes offering several courses in leather products designing and technology. Some of them are as follows

M.Sc. in Leather Goods & Accessories Design (M.Sc.-LGAD)
B.Sc. in Leather Goods & Accessories Design (B.Sc. - LGAD)
Diploma in Leather Goods & Accessories Design
Certificate program in Leather Goods & Accessories Design.


Leather Goods Institutes

1. Center for Leather Goods & Accessories Footwear Design and Development Institute (FDDI), Ministry of Commerce &Industry, Govt. of India, Noida 201301
2. National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi
3. Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Guindy, Chennai

(Above list is indicative only.)

Career Prospects

An accessory adds to individual’s fashion sense! If you wish to be a major force in the fashion industry, then putting your passion and skills into accessory design can push your career to great heights. The beauty of this business is that you can start your craft from your kitchen top and then push your designs to retail and designer stores for world to know. Aspiring designers pursuing a professional course in accessory designing can expect to find job as designers, product managers, brand managers, visual merchandisers and entrepreneurs in areas like leather goods, precious and costume jewelry, tableware, giftware, watches, footwear, handicrafts and lifestyle products etc. What’s more, if you have the right entrepreneur skills, you can even own your own accessory line.The leather industry is set to boom with bright career opportunities in both technical and designing areas. The Indian corporate along with foreign multinationals in this industry have made it possible to look forward to exciting employment options. Earlier Indian exports included only raw materials, but now leather goods are fast catching up with increasing acceptance in the international markets. This has enhanced opportunities for designers.

Designers are found to be working with leather goods companies as technical designers and style designers. While Technical designers train themselves in pattern making, cutting, designing, Style designers are responsible for updating the product in fashion and style. Designers are also employed by leather garment production houses and boutiques. Established designers also hire young designers to work with them.

On gaining sufficient experience, one can also set up his own unit for production and marketing of leather based products. As far as career growth and progression is concerned it is purely performance based and there is no limit to what one can achieve. If you have a strong commitment to design and want to specialize in accessories, while enriching your personal project and boosting your professional career, this course responds to your needs.

Remuneration

The remuneration in the leather goods industry depends upon the company, nature of work and the area where you work. As most of the jobs are in the private sector, pay is generally high. With multinationals setting up their base in India, this industry is no longer confined to small scale and financial returns can be quite satisfactory. Fresh recruits can expect a starting pay package between Rs. 10000 - 15000 p.m., as a Designer, Merchandiser, & different category/product specialist designer depending upon their qualifications and the size of the organization. For freelancers and those self-employed in their own units returns are not fixed. It varies on the basis of individual performance.

 
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